Madam Bhikaiji Cama was the mother of Indian revolution. She was born in a rich Parsi family and was married to Rustum Cama, a well known solicitor of Bombay. The political events in India influenced her deeply and she delved deep into politics.
In 1907 Madam Cama attended the second International Socialist Congress at Stutgart, Germany where she presented India’s case for Independence most forcefully and at the end of her speech she unfurled the Indian Tricolour with Vande Mataram insigmia thereon for the first time on foreign soil and made history for India by asking the congregation to stand up and salute.
This woman of extraordinary courage and intelligence passed away on 16-08-1936.
BEGUM HAZRAT MAHAL
Begum Hazrat Mahal was also known as Begum of Avadh. During the First War of Independence in 1957-58 the British deported her husband Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Lucknow to Calcutta. The Begum joined hands with the mutineers and seized control of Lucknow. She rejected with contempt the promises of allowance and status held out to her by the British and resisted the British forces with all her might. she, however, could not hold out for long and escaped to Nepal where she died in 1879.
ARUNA ASAF ALI
She was born in a Bengali Brahma Samaj family at Kalka in Haryana. She married Asaf Ali a prominent lawyer of Delhi against convention. She actively participated in the National Movement for Independence. Following the arrest of all congress leaders in 1942 she went underground to guide the movement evading police arrest. She became the symbol of the spirit of youth in this country guiding and leading the National Movement from underground. She remained underground till 1946 when the warrant of arrest was withdrawn. Aruna belonged to the heroic age of Freedom Movement. With this background, after Independence she could not adjust to the political realities and chose to live in retirement till her death on 29th July 1996. She was awarded Bharat Ratna (1997) Posthumously.
From the time she landed in India in 1893 and till her death in 1933, Annie Besant worked whole heartedly for the advancement of India in every field – educational, social, religious and political. Though born an English woman she turned an Indian by her love for this country. She was the founder of Theosophical Society in Madras. In 1917 she was elected the Congress President at the Calcutta Session. With the active support of Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru and Rt. Honourable V.S. Srinivasa Shastry Annie Besant worked whole heartedly towards fulfilment of Indian political aspirations. She died in 1933.
Born in Hyderabad, she was the eldest of the eight children of Aghorenath Chattopadhyay and Baradasundari. She passed her matriculation at the age of 12 standing first in the whole of Madras Presidency. She did her higher studies in London. She was a poet of merit and her proems received rave reviews in the English press. She came to be regarded as the Nightingale of India. She had a happy married life with Dr. M. Govindarajulu Naidu, Chief Medical Officer to the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Sarojini Naidu was in the forefront of the National Movement. She was elected the Congress President at Kanpur Session in 1925. She went to jail several times. After Independence she became the Governor of UP and she died in office on 2-3-1949.